In Emergency Medicine, decisions need to be made fast, and with a limited view on the patient’s health status. While the time urgency is imperative, in Emergency Medicine not all the decision outcomes are visible immediately. Actually, some may take quite some time to show up, turning feedback and learning processes into a challenge. Limited resources impose in addition a very severe constraint, which makes Emergency Medicine too many times a complex resource optimization problem in nature. We discuss here how Data Science has the potential to improve Emergency Medicine, focusing on some of the opportunities for such a complex context.